The Ghana Catholic Bishops' Conference (GCBC) conceived the idea of establishing CUCG in 1997. The Launch of CUCG Fund took place in Accra on 20th December, 2001. The then President of Ghana Catholic Bishops' Conference of Ghana, His Eminence Peter Cardinal Appiah-Turkson, made public the decision of the GCBC for the establishment of CUCG on 15th January, 2002. 

The Catholic University College received its certificate of incorporation on 17th August, 2001. The University College is affiliated to the University of Ghana, Legon. The National Accreditation Board (NAB) granted CUCG the right to start university programmes in December 2002. Currently, the Catholic University College is also affiliated to the University of Cape Coast for its Bachelor and Post-graduate degrees as well as Diplomas in Education programmes. The BSc Actuarial Science, BSc Mathematics with Finance and BSc Mathematics with Economics degree programmes will also be awarded by the University of Cape Coast.

The first batch of fifty (50) pioneer students of the Catholic University College reported at the Pastoral Centre of the Sunyani Catholic Diocese on 3rd March, 2003.  The CUCG officially commenced lectures on 10th March, 2003 in three Faculties: Economics and Business Administration; Religious Studies; and Information Communication Sciences and Technology. The degree programmes the University started were BSc. Computer Science, BSc. Economics and Business Administration, and BA Religious Studies. 

The pioneer students were matriculated on 3rd May 2003. The second batch of 32 students was admitted on 3rd November, 2003. His Excellency, John Agyekum Kuffour officially commissioned the University on 13th November, 2003. Cardinal Ivan Dias performed the laying of the Foundation Stone ceremony on 25th April, 2007 at the University Campus at Fiapre-Sunyani. 

The Chancellor of Catholic University College is His Eminence Peter Cardinal Appiah Turkson. Dr. Koomson Anthony Bonnah is the current President of the University. Most Rev. Matthew Kwasi Gyamfi is the Episcopal Chairman of the Catholic University College. Professor Michael Schultheis became the President of CUCG from 2003 to 2007 academic years. Rev. Msgr. Albert Kuuire was the first Registrar and Mr. Agana Banga, the first Finance Officer. The Out-gone Chairman of Board of Trustees (BOT) was Most Rev. Joseph Osei Bonsu while the Vice-Chairman was Dr. K. Donkor Fordjour. 

The following members constituted the old Board of Trustees of the University College: Archbishop (Emeritus) Akwasi Sarpong, Bishop Joseph Kweku Essien, Bishop Francis Lodonu and Bishop Paul Bemile. The rest are: Prof. Ebow Mensah, Prof. Alexander A. Kwapong, Prof. Kofi Kumado, Mr. Paul Kumahor, Rev. Fr. Gervase Angsotinege, Rev. Sr. Regina Kampo and Mrs. Cecilia Koufie. Mr. Ernest Kweku Appiah Odoom is the Secretary to the BOT. 

Currently, the following personalities form the new Board of Trustees (BOT) with Most Rev. Philip Naameh as the Chairman.  The Vice-Chairman is Mrs. Juliana Amonoo-Neizer.  The rest of the members include: Most Rev. Matthew Kwasi Gyamfi, Dr. Yaw Nsiah Peprah, Sir Dr. Kwame Donkor Fordwor, Msgr. John Opoku Agyemang, Prof. Dr. Koomson Anthony Bonnah, Rev. Sr. Elizabeth Amoako-Arhen, Sir Dave Anane Druyey, Mad. Nancy Florence Amapong Yelpoe, and Mr. Ernest  K. A. Odoom as Registrar/Secretary in Attendance.